Diet and urine estrogens among postmenopausal women

Oncology. 1991;48(6):490-4. doi: 10.1159/000226987.


Creatinine-adjusted levels of estrone, estradiol and estriol were determined in overnight urine specimens from 88 postmenopausal women from Athens, Greece, and were correlated with daily nutrient intakes estimated through a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Although obesity was positively and significantly related to all three urinary estrogens and their total, none of the investigated macro- or micronutrients was significantly or suggestively associated to any of these urinary estrogens, after controlling for energy intake, reproductive and biosocial variables. These results suggest that quantitative rather than qualitative aspects of nutrition affect the levels of postmenopausal estrogens, although endogenous factors could also be responsible for the association of these estrogens with obesity. Alcohol intake was also positively associated with urinary estrogens (mainly estrone and estradiol), after controlling for energy intake, obesity and the other indicated variables.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Alcohol Drinking / urine
  • Diet*
  • Estrogens / urine*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Menarche
  • Menopause*
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / urine
  • Parity
  • Regression Analysis
  • Smoking
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Estrogens