The G protein-coupled receptor Mas was recently described as an angiotensin-(1-7) [ANG-(1-7)] receptor. In the present study we evaluated the anatomical localization of Mas using immunofluorescence in the central nervous system of adult male Wistar rats. An abundant labeling was found in the hippocampus, amigdala, anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, cortex, and hypoglossal nucleus. More importantly, a dense ANG-(1-7) receptor Mas immunoreactivity was observed in cardiovascular-related areas of the medulla and forebrain, shown in several previous studies as sites for the action of ANG-(1-7) in the brain. A strong staining was found in the nucleus of the solitary tract, caudal and rostral ventrolateral medulla, inferior olive, parvo and magnocellular portions of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, and lateral preoptic area. Furthermore, Mas staining was predominantly present in neurons. At the medullary sites, a specific and high-intensity binding for rhodamine-ANG-(1-7) was also shown. The specific ANG-(1-7) binding was completely displaced by the anti-Mas antibody or by the ANG-(1-7) antagonist, A-779. The data presented provide the first anatomical basis for the physiological role of ANG-(1-7)/Mas axis in the modulation of different cardiovascular functions and give new insights for clarifying the role of ANG-(1-7) in the central nervous system.