G proteins provide signal-coupling mechanisms to heptahelical cell surface receptors and are critically involved in the regulation of different mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) networks. The four classes of G proteins, defined by the G(s), G(i), G(q) and G(12) families, regulate ERK1/2, JNK, p38MAPK, ERK5 and ERK6 modules by different mechanisms. The alpha- as well as betagamma-subunits are involved in the regulation of these MAPK modules in a context-specific manner. While the alpha- and betagamma-subunits primarily regulate the MAPK pathways via their respective effector-mediated signaling pathways, recent studies have unraveled several novel signaling intermediates including receptor tyrosine kinases and small GTPases through which these G-protein subunits positively as well as negatively regulate specific MAPK modules. Multiple mechanisms together with specific scaffold proteins that can link G-protein-coupled receptors or G proteins to distinct MAPK modules contribute to the context-specific and spatio-temporal regulation of mitogen-activated protein signaling networks by G proteins.