Carcinoid heart disease

Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2007 May-Jun;49(6):439-51. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2006.12.002.


Carcinoid heart disease is a rare form of valvular heart disease. The management of these patients is complex, as the systemic malignant disease and the cardiac involvement have to be considered at the same time. Progress in the treatment of patients with carcinoid disease has resulted in improved symptom control and survival. Development and progression of carcinoid heart disease are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In patients with severe cardiac involvement and well-controlled systemic disease, cardiac surgery has been recognized as the only effective treatment option. Valve replacement surgery may not only be beneficial in terms of symptom relief, but may also contribute to the improved survival observed over the past 2 decades in patients with carcinoid heart disease. Early diagnosis and early surgical treatment in appropriately selected patients may provide the best results. In this article, we review the current literature regarding the biology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of carcinoid heart disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use*
  • Biomarkers / urine
  • Carcinoid Heart Disease / diagnosis
  • Carcinoid Heart Disease / drug therapy
  • Carcinoid Heart Disease / physiopathology
  • Carcinoid Heart Disease / surgery
  • Carcinoid Heart Disease / therapy*
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures*
  • Cardiovascular Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Echocardiography, Doppler, Color
  • Embolization, Therapeutic*
  • Fluid Therapy*
  • Hepatectomy*
  • Humans
  • Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid / urine
  • Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / drug therapy
  • Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / physiopathology
  • Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / surgery
  • Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / therapy*
  • Prognosis
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Urinalysis / methods


  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • Biomarkers
  • Cardiovascular Agents
  • Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid