Neurexins are highly polymorphic cell-surface adhesive molecules in neurons. In cultured mammalian cell system, they were found to be involved in synaptogenesis. Here, we report for the first time that Drosophila neurexin is required for synapse formation and associative learning in larvae. Drosophila genome encodes a single functional neurexin (CG7050; Neurexin-1 or Nrx-1), which is a homolog of vertebrate alpha-neurexin. Neurexin-1 is expressed in central nervous system and highly enriched in synaptic regions of the ventral ganglion and brain. Neurexin-1 null mutants are viable and fertile, but have shortened lifespan. The synapse number is decreased in central nervous system in Neurexin-1 null mutants. In addition, Neurexin-1 null mutants exhibit associative learning defect in larvae.