Repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (RPMS) is a focused and painless stimulation method, in which muscle contractions are elicited by depolarization of the terminal motor branches. Clinical-experimental investigations on different disorders of sensorimotor integration in the last decade have shown that RPMS can be used for the rehabilitation of motor functions after stroke. It is supposed that this therapeutic effect is based on the RPMS-induced proprioceptive inflow to the CNS. To analyze the conditioning effects of RPMS on reorganization of the motor system on cortical level positron emission tomography (PET) is used. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) has been measured using H(2)O(15)-PET in eight patients with arm paresis following focal cerebral ischemic infarction before and after treatment using RPMS on upper arm flexor muscles. Behavioral measures showed a significant improvement of kinematics of finger movements and a reduction of spasticity in the affected arm following RPMS treatment. The recovery was associated with significant increase of neural activation within the superior posterior parietal lobe and the premotor cortex (PM) areas. The increase of activation of the parieto-premotor network following RPMS treatment indicates a significant conditioning effect of RPMS on the cortical level. These results emphasize the positive therapeutic effect of RPMS and describe the physiological bases of its function on the central level.