It is of great clinical value to identify subjects at a high risk of developing AD. We previously found that the amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) tracer PIB showed a robust difference in retention in the brain between AD patients and healthy controls (HC). Twenty-one patients diagnosed with MCI (mean age 63.3+/-7.8 (S.D.) years) underwent PET studies with (11)C-PIB, and (18)F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) to measure cerebral glucose metabolism, as well as assessment of cognitive function and CSF sampling. Reference group data from 27 AD patients and 6 healthy controls, respectively, were used for comparison. The mean cortical PIB retention for the MCI patients was intermediate compared to HC and AD. Seven MCI patients that later at clinical follow-up converted to AD (8.1+/-6.0 (S.D.) months) showed significant higher PIB retention compared to non-converting MCI patients and HC, respectively (ps<0.01). The PIB retention in MCI converters was comparable to AD patients (p>0.01). Correlations were observed in the MCI patients between PIB retention and CSF Abeta(1-42), total Tau and episodic memory, respectively.