Loss of skeletal muscle mass in aging: examining the relationship of starvation, sarcopenia and cachexia

Clin Nutr. 2007 Aug;26(4):389-99. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2007.03.008. Epub 2007 May 11.


A loss of body weight or skeletal muscle mass is common in older persons and is a harbinger of poor outcome. Involuntary weight loss can be categorized into three primary etiologies of starvation, sarcopenia, and cachexia. Starvation results in a loss of body fat and non-fat mass due to inadequate intake of protein and energy. Sarcopenia is associated with a reduction in muscle mass and strength occurring with normal aging, associated with a reduction in motor unit number and atrophy of muscle fibers, especially the type IIa fibers. The loss of muscle mass with aging is clinically important because it leads to diminished strength and exercise capacity. Cachexia is widely recognized as severe wasting accompanying disease states such as cancer or immunodeficiency disease, but does not have a universally accepted definition. The key clinical question is whether these changes in body composition are distinct entities or represent an interdependent continuum. The importance of defining the distinction lies in developing a targeted therapeutic approach to skeletal muscle loss and muscle strength in older persons. Failure to distinguish among these causes of skeletal muscle loss often results in frustration over the clinical response to therapeutic interventions.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aging / pathology
  • Aging / physiology*
  • Cachexia / etiology
  • Cachexia / physiopathology*
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Exercise / physiology
  • Humans
  • Muscular Atrophy / etiology
  • Muscular Atrophy / physiopathology*
  • Protein-Energy Malnutrition / etiology
  • Protein-Energy Malnutrition / physiopathology*
  • Weight Loss*