Vitamin D is known to be widely deficient in Western populations. The implications of this in terms of bone health are increasingly understood, yet its impact on other health areas, particularly mental health, is unclear. Recent data suggests that hypovitaminosis D may be common, especially in the elderly. Other studies have suggested that low levels of vitamin D are associated with poor mood. There are a number of trials that have suggested a role for Vitamin D in the supplementary treatment of depression. Dose may be a critical issue, as sun exposure and dietary intake may be low and high doses may be required.