Purpose: Treatment of children with end stage renal disease, especially those with significant bladder dysfunction, is difficult. A high pressure and low capacity bladder is a major risk factor for a transplanted kidney. Cystoplasty can protect the kidney allograft by reducing the intravesical pressure and creating an appropriate capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of kidney transplantation in children with and without prior cystoplasty.
Materials and methods: A total of 43 children with bladder dysfunction in urgent need of cystoplasty were enrolled in the study and were compared to a control group with regard to acute and chronic rejection rates, survival of the transplanted kidney, surgical complications and febrile urinary tract infection.
Results: The rates of febrile urinary tract infection and chronic rejection were significantly higher in patients with prior cystoplasty (p<0.001 and p=0.004, respectively). Also, graft loss was much more frequent in these patients (34.9% vs 20.9%), although this difference was not statistically significant. In patients with prior cystoplasty graft survival rates were 92%, 73%, 58% and 45% at postoperative years 1, 3, 5 and 7, respectively. In the control group these rates were 94%, 87%, 81% and 75%, respectively (p=0.007).
Conclusions: Based on our findings, the survival rate of the kidney is significantly lower in children with prior cystoplasty, possibly due to the higher prevalence of chronic rejection and febrile urinary tract infection in this group.