High-throughput screening of a subset of the J&J compound library containing the carboxylic acid functional group uncovered a bromophenyl derivative as a moderate potent GPR40 agonist. Chemical elaboration of this bromophenyl led to the discovery of a novel series of GPR40 agonists with submicromolar potency. Among them, 22 and 24 behaved as full agonists when compared to the endogenous GPR40 ligand linolenic acid in a functional Ca+2 flux assay in HEK cells expressing GPR40 receptor. Several GPR40 agonists have also demonstrated the ability to induce glucose-mediated insulin secretion in the mouse MIN6 pancreatic beta-cell line. Our data supports the hypothesis that GPR40 may play an important role in fatty acid-mediated glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Compound 22 exhibited good pharmacokinetic profile in rat and may serve as a good candidate for in vivo study and may help to determine if GPR40 agonists would be beneficial in the treatment of type II diabetes.