Gate-modulated low-temperature Raman spectra reveal that the electric field effect (EFE), pervasive in contemporary electronics, has marked impacts on long-wavelength optical phonons of graphene. The EFE in this two-dimensional honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms creates large density modulations of carriers with linear dispersion (known as Dirac fermions). Our EFE Raman spectra display the interactions of lattice vibrations with these unusual carriers. The changes of phonon frequency and linewidth demonstrate optically the particle-hole symmetry about the charge-neutral Dirac point. The linear dependence of the phonon frequency on the EFE-modulated Fermi energy is explained as the electron-phonon coupling of massless Dirac fermions.