Objective: To determine indications for cystostomy tube use in dogs and cats, complications associated with their use, and outcome of dogs and cats in which cystostomy tubes had been inserted.
Design: Retrospective case series.
Animals: 37 dogs and 39 cats.
Procedures: Information was obtained from medical records. Long-term follow-up information was obtained by use of a client questionnaire.
Results: Indications for cystostomy tube placement were bladder dysfunction, urinary tract rupture, obstructive urinary tract neoplasia, urinary diversion following urogenital surgery, obstructive urolithiasis, and feline lower urinary tract disease. Median time tubes were in place was 11 days, but duration of tube use was significantly longer for animals with bladder dysfunction than for animals with urinary tract trauma, urinary diversion, or urinary tract obstruction. Thirty-seven (49%) animals had tube complications. Development of complications was not significantly associated with species, age, body weight, duration of tube use, or tube type, except that animals were significantly more likely to develop complications following long-rather than short-term use. In 42 animals, the underlying condition resolved and the tube was removed; 22 animals died or were euthanatized with the tube in place.
Conclusions and clinical relevance: Results suggested that cystostomy tubes may be used for animals with various conditions related to problems with urine outflow. Nearly half the animals in the study developed complications related to the cystostomy tube, suggesting that potential complications should be discussed with owners prior to tube placement. However, most complications were easily resolved.