Objective: To evaluate the effects of genetic polymorphisms of drug metabolizing enzymes on the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and its active metabolite, 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide, and on the pharmacodynamics.
Experimental design: One hundred and three Japanese patients with malignant lymphoma or breast cancer treated with cyclophosphamide (500-750 mg/m) participated in this study. The plasma concentrations of cyclophosphamide and 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The genotypes of CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, ALDH1A1, GST genes were determined by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction or polymerase chain reaction-restriction-fragment length polymorphism.
Results: A large interindividual difference (54-fold) was observed in the area under the curve ratio of 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide/cyclophosphamide calculated as the metabolic index. We first proved that leukocytopenia and neutropenia were significantly (P<0.01) related to the area under the curve of 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide. We found that the homozygotes of CYP2B6*6 (Q172H and K262R) showed significantly (P<0.05) higher clearance and shorter half-life of cyclophosphamide than heterozygotes and homozygotes of CYP2B6*1. The small sample size, however, limited the impact. On the other hand, it was clearly demonstrated that the patients possessing the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the CYP2B6 gene, g.-2320T>C, g.-750T>C (5'-flanking region), g.15582C>T (intron 3), or g.18492T>C (intron 5), had significantly lower area under the curve ratios of 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide/cyclophosphamide, indicating a decreased cyclophosphamide 4-hydroxylation. Of particular importance was the finding that leukocytopenia was significantly related to the single nucleotide polymorphisms g.-2320T>C, g.-750T>C, and g.18492T>C in CYP2B6 gene, which are highly linked. No relationship was observed between the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide or 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide and genetic polymorphisms of the other enzymes.
Conclusions: We clarified that the single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter region or introns in the CYP2B6 affect the potency of cyclophosphamide activation to 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide. This information would be valuable for predicting adverse reactions and the clinical efficacy of cyclophosphamide.