Background: Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive patients on combination antiretroviral therapy.
Objective: To determine whether awareness of smoking differs between HIV and non-HIV providers, and to identify factors associated with failure to recognize current smoking.
Design: Observational study.
Participants: 801 HIV-positive and 602 HIV-negative patients, 72 HIV and 71 non-HIV providers enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort 5 Site Study.
Measurements: Data sources included patient and provider questionnaires; electronic medical records; and the national administrative VA database. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, and measures of agreement between patient- and provider-reported smoking, and examined factors associated with failure to recognize current smoking using logistic regression.
Results: Whereas most providers were correct when they identified a patient as a current smoker (specificity > or = 90%), HIV providers missed current smoking more often (sensitivity 65% for HIV vs. 82% for non-HIV). Kappa scores for current smoking were significantly lower for HIV compared to non-HIV providers (0.55 vs. 0.75, p < .001). In models adjusted for age, gender, race, and other differences, patient HIV status and provider specialty in infectious diseases were independent predictors of a provider's failure to recognize current smoking. Comorbid illnesses, cough/dyspnea, degree of immune competence and HIV viral suppression did not impact recognition of current smoking. Only 39% of HIV providers reported confidence in their ability to influence smoking cessation compared to 62% of non-HIV providers (p = .049).
Conclusions: Interventions to increase HIV provider awareness of current smoking and skills to influence smoking cessation are needed. Efforts should also target patient populations with smoking-related comorbid diseases who would especially benefit from smoking cessation.