Genetic polymorphisms in the chemokine and chemokine receptors: impact on clinical course and therapy of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection (HIV-1)

Curr Med Chem. 2007;14(12):1325-34. doi: 10.2174/092986707780597934.


The natural history and pathogenic processes of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are complex, variable, and dependent upon a multitude of viral and host factors and their interactions. The CCR5-Delta32 allele remains the most important genetic factor known to be associated with host resistance to the HIV-1 infection. However, other mutations in the CCR5, CCR2, CX(3)CR1, CXCL12 (SDF1), and CCL5 (RANTES) genes have been identified and associated with host resistance and/or susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and disease progression. Some studies have also suggested that chemokine receptor gene polymorphisms may affect response to potent antiretroviral therapy. This article reviews the polymorphisms already described in the mutant chemokine receptors or ligands and their impact on the host susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and on the clinical course of the disease, as well as the development of new anti-HIV therapies that takes into account these potential targets in the host. These genetic polymorphisms could be used as genetic markers to detect individuals at higher risk of developing either a faster disease progression or therapeutic failure. Once these individuals are identified, therapeutic strategies based on either different, more aggressive drugs or combinations of drugs can be used, either alone or in combination with shorter intervals for therapeutic monitoring. Pharmacogenetics is very likely to underlie future therapies for HIV-1 infection, and current patients with multi-resistance to the existing antiretroviral agents could also benefit from this approach. These developments also underscore the importance of continuing the investigation of new therapies targeted to the host in order to inhibit the HIV-1 entry into the host cells.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use*
  • CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1
  • Chemokine CCL5 / genetics
  • Chemokine CXCL12
  • Chemokines / genetics*
  • Chemokines, CC / genetics
  • Chemokines, CXC / genetics
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Long-Term Survivors
  • HIV-1*
  • Humans
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Receptors, CCR2
  • Receptors, CCR5 / genetics
  • Receptors, Chemokine / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Receptors, Chemokine / genetics*


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • CCL5 protein, human
  • CCR2 protein, human
  • CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1
  • CX3CR1 protein, human
  • CXCL12 protein, human
  • Chemokine CCL5
  • Chemokine CXCL12
  • Chemokines
  • Chemokines, CC
  • Chemokines, CXC
  • Receptors, CCR2
  • Receptors, CCR5
  • Receptors, Chemokine