Androgens and the androgen receptor (AR) act in cells by modulating gene expression. Through gene microarray studies, we have identified Ets Variant Gene 1 (ETV1) as a novel androgen-regulated gene. Our data demonstrate that ETV1 mRNA and protein are up-regulated in response to ligand-activated AR in androgen-dependent LNCaP cells, but there is no detectable ETV1 expression in normal prostate cells. The ETV1 promoter is induced by androgens and recruits the AR in the context of chromatin. ETV1-regulated endogenous matrix metalloproteinase genes can be induced by ligand-activated AR. In contrast to the hormone-induced expression in androgen-dependent LNCaP cells, ETV1 expression in androgen-independent LNCaP cells is high and unresponsive to androgen. This androgen-independent ETV1 expression contrasts with the hormone-dependent expression observed for TMPRSS2 in these androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. ETV1 is overexpressed in prostate cancer independent of the TMPRSS2:ETV1 translocation. Disruption of ETV1 expression in both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer cells significantly compromises the invasion capacity of these cells, suggesting an important role for ETV1 in prostate cancer metastasis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ETV1 expression transitions from androgen-induced to androgen-independent as prostate cancer cells switch from hormone-dependent to hormone-refractory and suggest that this transition may be in part responsible for the elevated levels of ETV1 observed in prostate tumors. Additionally, our data provide an indirect mechanism of AR regulation of gene expression, via the transactivation of the transcription factor ETV1.