Objective: We sought to study the optimal management of hyperglycemia in non-intensive care unit patients with type 2 diabetes, as few studies thus far have focused on the subject.
Research design and methods: We conducted a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial to compare the efficacy and safety of a basal-bolus insulin regimen with that of sliding-scale regular insulin (SSI) in patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 130 insulin-naive patients were randomized to receive glargine and glulisine (n = 65) or a standard SSI protocol (n = 65). Glargine was given once daily and glulisine before meals at a starting dose of 0.4 units x kg(-1) x day(-1) for blood glucose 140-200 mg/dl or 0.5 units x kg(-1) x day(-1) for blood glucose 201-400 mg/dl. SSI was given four times per day for blood glucose >140 mg/dl.
Results: The mean admission blood glucose was 229 +/- 6 mg/dl and A1C 8.8 +/- 2%. A blood glucose target of <140 mg/dl was achieved in 66% of patients in the glargine and glulisine group and in 38% of those in the SSI group. The mean daily blood glucose between groups ranged from 23 to 58 mg/dl, with an overall blood glucose difference of 27 mg/dl (P < 0.01). Despite increasing insulin doses, 14% of patients treated with SSI remained with blood glucose >240 mg/dl. There were no differences in the rate of hypoglycemia or length of hospital stay.
Conclusions: Treatment with insulin glargine and glulisine resulted in significant improvement in glycemic control compared with that achieved with the use of SSI alone. Our study indicates that a basal-bolus insulin regimen is preferred over SSI in the management of non-critically ill, hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00394407.