In hypertensive hemodialysis (HD) patients, dry weight reduction to normalize blood pressure (BP) often results in increased frequency of HD hypotension. Because HD with blood volume tracking (BVT) has been shown to improve intra-HD hemodynamic stability, we performed a prospective, randomized study to test whether BVT is more effective than standard hemodialysis (SHD) in the management of hypertension by dry weight reduction. After a run-in period of 4 weeks on SHD, 28 patients were randomly assigned for a 12-week treatment period with either SHD (n = 14) or BVT (n = 14). The mean pre-HD and post-HD weight did not change over time in either group. In the BVT group, pre-HD systolic and diastolic BP decreased on average 22.5 mm Hg and 8.3 mm Hg, respectively (both p < 0.05), whereas BP did not change in the SHD group. Extracellular water and cardiothoracic ratio decreased significantly (all p < 0.05) in the BVT group but not in the SHD group. Brain natriuretic peptide levels declined only in the BVT group, without reaching statistical significance. The frequency of HD hypotensive episodes decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the BVT group and was unchanged in the SHD group. HD with BVT was associated with a significant reduction in pre-HD BP. At the same time, the frequency of intra-HD hypotensive episodes decreased. Although the mean weight did not change, the reductions in cardiothoracic ratio and extracellular water suggest that HD with BVT resulted in optimization of volume status.