A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that underlie hepatic differentiation inside a bioartificial liver (BAL) device is obtained when functional, histological, and gene expression analyses can be combined. We therefore developed a novel cell-sampling technique that enabled us to analyze adherent hepatocytes inside a BAL device during a 5-day culture period, without the necessity of terminating the culture. Biochemical data showed that hepatocyte-specific functions were relatively stable, despite an increase in glycolytic activity. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis of hepatic genes cytochrome p450 3A29, albumin, glutamine synthetase, alpha-1 antitrypsin, and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase, but also de-differentiation marker pi-class glutathione S transferase showed stable messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels from day 1 to 5. In contrast, mRNA levels of alpha-fetoprotein, pro- and anti-apoptotic genes Bax-alpha and Bcl-X(L), metabolic genes lactate dehydrogenase and uncoupling protein 2, and cytoskeleton genes alpha- and beta-tubulin and beta-actin increased in 5 days. Histological analysis revealed viable tissue-like structures with adaptation to the in vitro environment. We conclude that hepatocytes show a tendency for de-differentiation shortly after seeding but thereafter remain acceptably differentiated during 5 days of culture. Furthermore, partly impaired mitochondrial function is suggestive for local hypoxic regions and may trigger the observed metabolic changes. Anti-apoptotic activity seems to balance pro-apoptotic activity. This new cell-sampling technique facilitates the analysis of dynamic processes of hepatocyte culture inside a BAL.