A flexible and wearable biosensor for tear glucose measurement

Biomed Microdevices. 2007 Aug;9(4):603-9. doi: 10.1007/s10544-007-9073-3.


A flexible and wearable amperometoric glucose sensor was fabricated and tested. Also, the sensor was utilized to tear glucose monitoring. The sensor was constructed by immobilizing GOD onto a flexible oxygen electrode (Pt working electrode and Ag/AgCl counter/reference electrode), which was fabricated using "Soft-MEMS" techniques onto a functional polymer membrane. In purpose of bioinstrumentation, adhesive agents were not used for constructing the flexible biosensor. Linear relationship between glucose concentration and output current was obtained in a range of 0.025-1.475 mmol/l, with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. Current dependences on pH and temperature were also evaluated. The current was largest at pH 7.0 and the current increased when temperature increased. This indicates that the output current depends on enzyme activity. Based on the basic characteristics investigation, the glucose sensor was applied to measurement of glucose in tear fluids on an eye site of a Japan white rabbit. The change of tear glucose level induced by oral-administration of glucose was monitored as a current change of the sensor attached on the eye site. In this investigation, the tear glucose level varied from 0.16 to 0.46 mmol/l. Although there was a delay of several tens of minutes towards blood sugar level, it is considered to be possible that non-invasive continuous glucose monitoring can be realized using the flexible biosensor.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biosensing Techniques / instrumentation*
  • Electrochemistry
  • Female
  • Glucose / analysis*
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Rabbits
  • Tears / chemistry*


  • Glucose