Prader-Willi syndrome, the first known human genomic imprinting disorder, is one of the most common micro-deletion syndromes. Prader-Willi syndrome is caused by the absence of certain paternally inherited genes on the long arm of chromosome 15, resulting in a complete absence of the active copy of the genetic information in this region. It is most commonly known for its food-related characteristics of hyperphagia, food-seeking behavior, and consequent obesity. Primary care physicians play an important role in the care of children with Prader-Willi syndrome, from recognizing the presenting signs and symptoms at its various stages to understanding their unique medical, developmental, behavioral, and dietary issues. They can also serve as a valuable source of support and advocacy for the family. This article reviews the current state of knowledge about Prader-Willi syndrome and discusses up-to-date understanding of the management of this condition.