Stability and flexibility of epigenetic gene regulation in mammalian development

Nature. 2007 May 24;447(7143):425-32. doi: 10.1038/nature05918.


During development, cells start in a pluripotent state, from which they can differentiate into many cell types, and progressively develop a narrower potential. Their gene-expression programmes become more defined, restricted and, potentially, 'locked in'. Pluripotent stem cells express genes that encode a set of core transcription factors, while genes that are required later in development are repressed by histone marks, which confer short-term, and therefore flexible, epigenetic silencing. By contrast, the methylation of DNA confers long-term epigenetic silencing of particular sequences--transposons, imprinted genes and pluripotency-associated genes--in somatic cells. Long-term silencing can be reprogrammed by demethylation of DNA, and this process might involve DNA repair. It is not known whether any of the epigenetic marks has a primary role in determining cell and lineage commitment during development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • DNA Transposable Elements / genetics
  • Epigenesis, Genetic / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / genetics*
  • Gene Silencing
  • Genomic Imprinting
  • Mammals / embryology*
  • Mammals / genetics*


  • DNA Transposable Elements