When pravastatin (40 mg/day) was co-administered with gemfibrozil (600 mg, b.i.d., 3 days) to man, the AUC of pravastatin increased approximately 2-fold. We have clarified that OATP1B1 is a key determinant of the hepatic uptake of pravastatin in humans. Thus, we hypothesized that gemfibrozil and the main plasma metabolites, a glucuronide (gem-glu) and a carboxylic acid metabolite (gem-M3), might inhibit the hepatic uptake of pravastatin and lead to the elevation of the plasma concentration of pravastatin. Gemfibrozil and gem-glu inhibited the uptake of (14)C-pravastatin by human hepatocytes with K(i) values of 31.7 microM and 15.7 microM, respectively and also inhibited pravastatin uptake by OATP1B1-expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes with K(i) values of 15.1 microM and 7.6 microM. Additionally, we examined the biliary transport of pravastatin and demonstrated that pravastatin was transported by MRP2 using both human canalicular membrane vesicles (hCMVs) and human MRP2-expressing vesicles. However, gemfibrozil, gem-glu and gem-M3 did not affect the biliary transport of pravastatin by MRP2. Considering the plasma concentrations of gemfibrozil and gem-glu in humans, the inhibition of OATP1B1-mediated hepatic uptake of pravastatin by gem-glu would contribute, at least in part, to the elevation of plasma concentration of pravastatin by the concomitant use of gemfibrozil.