Systemic production of IFN-alpha by garlic (Allium sativum) in humans

J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2007 May;27(5):377-82. doi: 10.1089/jir.2006.0124.


The effect of foods on the production of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is currently unknown. Garlic (Allium sativum) used as a folk medicine is reported to stimulate nitric oxide (NO) production. We investigated the systemic increase of NO due to the ingestion of garlic on the plasma IFN-alpha level in normal volunteers. Normal volunteers (10 groups, 10 in each group) ate 2 g fresh garlic, and plasma NO and IFN-alpha levels were determined after 2 and 4 h. The participants were also asked to eat garlic for various periods of time, and plasma NO and IFN-alpha were similarly assayed. Ingestion of 2 g fresh, but not boiled, garlic was found to increase the basal plasma level of NO from 2.7 +/- 0.1 microM to 8.76 +/- 0.21 microM at 2 and 4 h, respectively. The basal plasma IFN-alpha level increased from 9.51 +/- 0.26 nM to 46.3 +/- 1.2 nM in normal volunteers (n = 10) at the same time. The chronic eating of garlic was found to maintain IFN-alpha at high levels for at least 7 days. The exposure of neutrophils to garlic in vivo or in vitro, which also stimulated synthesis of NO in these cells, was found to stimulate IFN-alpha synthesis as measured by the stimulation of IFN-alpha mRNA synthesis. Thus, consumption of garlic resulted in stimulated synthesis of NO and, in turn, IFN-alpha in humans, which could be beneficial in viral or proliferative diseases.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Food
  • Garlic*
  • Humans
  • Interferon-alpha / biosynthesis*
  • Interferon-alpha / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neutrophils / drug effects
  • Nitric Oxide / biosynthesis
  • Nitric Oxide / blood
  • RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis
  • Time Factors


  • Interferon-alpha
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Nitric Oxide