Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by ginsenoside Rd via activation of CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins and cyclic AMP response binding protein

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Jul 20;359(1):51-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.05.034. Epub 2007 May 21.


Panax ginseng is a widely used herbal medicine in East Asia and is reported to have a variety of pharmacological effects against cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Here we show a unique effect of ginsenoside Rd (Rd) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in RAW264.7 macrophages. Rd (100 microg/ml), but not other ginsenosides induced COX-2 and increased prostaglandin E(2) production. Gel shift and Western blot analyses using nuclear fractions revealed that Rd increased both the DNA binding of and the nuclear levels of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)alpha/beta and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), but not of p65, in RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, Rd increased the luciferase reporter gene activity in cells transfected with a 574-bp mouse COX-2 promoter construct. Site-specific mutation analyses confirmed that Rd-mediated transcriptional activation of COX-2 gene was regulated by C/EBP and CREB. These results provide evidence that Rd activated C/EBP and CREB, and that the activation of C/EBP and CREB appears to be essential for induction of COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Cell Line
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / metabolism*
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Ginsenosides / administration & dosage*
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Macrophages / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*
  • Transcriptional Activation / drug effects
  • Transcriptional Activation / physiology


  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein
  • Ginsenosides
  • Ptgs2 protein, mouse
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • ginsenoside Rd