The restoration of kidney function by transplantation improves the common finding of chronic inflammation in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The C-reactive protein (CRP) level is a reliable marker of inflammation in renal transplant recipients. We analyzed the predictive value of posttransplant CRP surges on renal allograft survival among 141 ESRD patients who underwent renal transplantation between May 1999 and September 2001 at our institution. Twenty-seven cadaveric and 114 living donors were also studied. The subjects' demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded. The renal transplant recipients were divided into three groups defined by the type of serum CRP surge: a normal, intermittently high, or consistently high serum CRP concentration. Renal allograft survival rates were 90.0% among recipients with normal serum CRP concentrations, 72.6% among those with intermittently high concentrations, and 11.1% in those with consistently high concentrations. A Cox regression analysis of factors that affect allograft survival showed that acute rejection, advanced recipient age, and consistently high serum CRP concentrations were associated with a high risk of renal allograft loss. Intermittent elevations in the serum CRP level were not associated with an increased risk of allograft loss, according to the Cox regression model. We concluded that consistently high serum CRP concentrations in renal allograft recipients showed a high negative predictive value for renal allograft survival. In recipients who exhibited ongoing inflammatory process in the 5-year posttransplant period, additional efforts are necessary to manage inflammation and therefore prolong renal allograft survival.