Multicentric sporadic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of the stomach with distinct clonal origin: differential diagnosis to familial and syndromal GIST variants and peritoneal metastasis

Am J Surg Pathol. 2007 Jun;31(6):933-7. doi: 10.1097/01.pas.0000213440.78407.27.

Abstract

Most sporadic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) occur solitary, whereas a multicentric appearance is suspicious for a familial or syndromal setting such as with germline mutations of proto-oncogene tyrosine protein kinase Kit (KIT) or platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA), or even for metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether multicentric sporadic GISTs are of clonal origin. Four patients with 1 clinically apparent tumor (mean size 5.6 cm) and 1 to 3 further small incidental tumors (mean size 0.7 cm) were analysed by mutation analysis and comparative genomic hybridization for mutations of KIT and PDGFRA and chromosomal imbalances in their tumors. No clinicopathologic features have been found being indicative of one of the established familial or syndromal GIST variants. Each of the small GISTs were localized in the muscularis propria, and were visible from the serosal but not from the mucosal side. Different mutations of KIT and PDGFRA were present among individual tumors of each patient, and germline mutation of KIT and PDGFRA could be excluded. Comparative genomic hybridization revealed a mean count of 7 chromosomal imbalances in the clinically apparent tumors compared with a mean count of 0.3 in the small incidental counterparts. Sporadic GISTs can appear multicentric by coincidence. They are an important differential diagnosis to familial and syndromal GIST variants, or even to peritoneal metastases. Different mutations of KIT and PDGFRA among individual tumors in 1 patient refer to different clonal origin of multicentric sporadic GISTs. The type of mutation of KIT and PDGFRA was independent of tumor size, whereas small GISTs <1 cm rarely had genomic imbalances.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / genetics*
  • Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha / genetics
  • Stem Cell Factor / genetics
  • Stomach Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / pathology*

Substances

  • Stem Cell Factor
  • Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha