Lymphoid reservoirs of antigen-specific memory T helper cells

Nat Immunol. 2007 Jul;8(7):753-61. doi: 10.1038/ni1472. Epub 2007 May 27.


How vaccines control the development of antigen-specific effector and memory T helper cells is central to protective immunity but remains poorly understood. Here we found that protein vaccination selected high-affinity, CXCR5+ICOS(hi) follicular B-helper T cells (T(FH) cells) that developed in draining lymphoid tissue to regulate B cell responses. In the memory phase, reservoirs of antigen-specific CXCR5+ICOS(lo) T(FH) cells persisted with less effector activity but accelerated antigen-recall ability. This new compartment of memory T(FH) cells was retained in draining lymphoid sites with antigen-specific memory B cells, persistent complexes of peptide and major histocompatibility complex class II and continued expression of CD69. Thus, protein vaccination promotes B cell immunity by selecting high-affinity effector T(FH) cells and creating lymphoid reservoirs of antigen-specific memory T(FH) cells in vivo.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Adhesion / immunology
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Clone Cells
  • Columbidae
  • Cytochromes c / administration & dosage
  • Cytochromes c / immunology
  • Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte / immunology*
  • Immunologic Memory*
  • Lymph Nodes / cytology
  • Lymph Nodes / immunology*
  • Lymph Nodes / metabolism
  • Lymphocyte Activation / immunology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / cytology
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / metabolism
  • T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer / cytology
  • T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer / metabolism


  • Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte
  • Cytochromes c

Associated data

  • GEO/GSE7548