Effect of spirulina maxima on the haloperidol induced tardive dyskinesia and oxidative stress in rats

J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2007 Sep;114(9):1217-25. doi: 10.1007/s00702-007-0744-2. Epub 2007 May 26.


Haloperidol is a widely used neuroleptic drug for the treatment of acute and chronic psychosis. The use of haloperidol is limited by extrapyramidal movement disorders such as Parkinsonism, akathesia, dystonia, and tardive dyskinesia (TD). Treatment with haloperidol increases oxyradicals which are implicated in TD. Spirulina is widely used as nutritional supplement rich in proteins and antioxidants. The present study is proposed to study the effect of spirulina on haloperidol induced TD and oxidative stress by studying TD, various enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation. Haloperidol 1 mg/kg/i.p was used to induce vacuous chewing movements in rats. Spirulina maxima suspended in 1% between 80 at a dose of 45, 90 and 180 mg/kg were administered by gavage along with haloperidol from 21st day to 49th day of treatment. Spirulina supplementation at a dose of 180 mg/kg significantly improved enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and decreased the tardive dyskinesia induced by haloperidol. In conclusion, the results of present investigation suggest that spirulina decreases haloperidol induced oxidative stress and TD by many mechanisms as it is cocktail of antioxidants. On chronic use it may inhibit haloperidol induced reduced expression of DNA thereby increases the expression of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and protects against oxidative stress induced neurodegeneration and TD.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced / metabolism*
  • Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced / prevention & control*
  • Haloperidol / toxicity*
  • Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects
  • Lipid Peroxidation / physiology
  • Male
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Spirulina*


  • Haloperidol