Estimation of drug precipitation upon dilution of pH-controlled formulations

Mol Pharm. 2007 Jul-Aug;4(4):550-5. doi: 10.1021/mp070007o. Epub 2007 May 26.


An equation is developed for estimating the precipitation that may occur upon diluting or injecting a (pH-)solubilized drug formulation. Since it is based on equilibrium, it is the worst case scenario for precipitation. This equation can be programmed in any commercially available spread sheet program such as Excel. According to the proposed equation, the type and the strength of the buffer species are the most significant factors that affect the pH and solubility of a drug in its microenvironment during dilution. To demonstrate the utility and robustness of the proposed equation, experimental measurements were performed using phenytoin as the model drug. The result suggests that the proposed equation can be used to indicate the possibility and the degree of precipitation that would occur upon injection. This provides a useful tool for the design of a successful pH-controlled solution formulation.

MeSH terms

  • Anticonvulsants / administration & dosage
  • Anticonvulsants / chemistry
  • Buffers
  • Chemical Phenomena
  • Chemical Precipitation
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical*
  • Chemistry, Physical
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / chemistry*
  • Phenytoin / administration & dosage
  • Phenytoin / chemistry
  • Solubility


  • Anticonvulsants
  • Buffers
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • Phenytoin