Antiphospholipid antibodies in response to infection

Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2007 Jun;9(3):212-8. doi: 10.1007/s11926-007-0034-x.


An association between infections and antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) has been reported in several epidemiologic and experimental studies. Infection-induced aPL have been traditionally regarded as transient and were generally not associated with clinical features of antiphospholipid syndrome. The distinction between autoimmune and postinfectious aPL on the basis of requirement of binding cofactor is not absolute, and in recent years, several reports demonstrated that some patients can produce pathogenic antibodies in response to infection. Infections most frequently associated with antiphospholipid syndrome include parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus, varicella-zoster virus, HIV, streptococcal and staphylococcal infections, gram-negative bacteria, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Antiphospholipid / immunology*
  • Antibody Formation
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome / complications*
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome / physiopathology
  • Bacterial Infections / complications
  • Bacterial Infections / immunology*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Humans
  • Parasitic Diseases / complications
  • Parasitic Diseases / immunology*
  • Virus Diseases / complications
  • Virus Diseases / immunology*


  • Antibodies, Antiphospholipid