Purpose: To identify risk factors and describe the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis on the incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery based on analysis of the findings of the European Society of Cataract & Refractive Surgeons (ESCRS) multicenter study.
Setting: Twenty-four ophthalmology units in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom.
Methods: A prospective randomized partially masked multicenter cataract surgery study recruited 16 603 patients. The study was based on a 2 x 2 factorial design, with intracameral cefuroxime and topical perioperative levofloxacin factors resulting in 4 treatment groups. The comparison of case and non-case data was performed using multivariable logistic regression analyses. Odds ratios (ORs) associated with treatment effects and other risk factors were estimated.
Results: Twenty-nine patients presented with endophthalmitis, of whom 20 were classified as having proven infective endophthalmitis. The absence of an intracameral cefuroxime prophylactic regimen at 1 mg in 0.1 mL normal saline was associated with a 4.92-fold increase (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.87-12.9) in the risk for total postoperative endophthalmitis. In addition, the use of clear corneal incisions (CCIs) compared to scleral tunnels was associated with a 5.88-fold increase (95% CI, 1.34-25.9) in risk and the use of silicone intraocular lens (IOL) optic material compared to acrylic with a 3.13-fold increase (95% CI, 1.47-6.67). The presence of surgical complications increased the risk for total endophthalmitis 4.95-fold (95% CI, 1.68-14.6), and more experienced surgeons were more likely to be associated with endophthalmitis cases. When considering only proven infective endophthalmitis cases, the absence of cefuroxime and the use of silicone IOL optic material were significantly associated with an increased risk, and there was evidence that men were more predisposed to infection (OR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.07-6.8).
Conclusions: Use of intracameral cefuroxime at the end of surgery reduced the occurrence of postoperative endophthalmitis. Additional risk factors associated with endophthalmitis after cataract surgery included CCIs and the use of silicone IOLs.