Effects of ayahuasca on psychometric measures of anxiety, panic-like and hopelessness in Santo Daime members

J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jul 25;112(3):507-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2007.04.012. Epub 2007 Apr 25.


The use of the hallucinogenic brew ayahuasca, obtained from infusing the shredded stalk of the malpighiaceous plant Banisteriopsis caapi with the leaves of other plants such as Psychotria viridis, is growing in urban centers of Europe, South and North America in the last several decades. Despite this diffusion, little is known about its effects on emotional states. The present study investigated the effects of ayahuasca on psychometric measures of anxiety, panic-like and hopelessness in members of the Santo Daime, an ayahuasca-using religion. Standard questionnaires were used to evaluate state-anxiety (STAI-state), trait-anxiety (STAI-trait), panic-like (ASI-R) and hopelessness (BHS) in participants that ingested ayahuasca for at least 10 consecutive years. The study was done in the Santo Daime church, where the questionnaires were administered 1h after the ingestion of the brew, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled procedure. While under the acute effects of ayahuasca, participants scored lower on the scales for panic and hopelessness related states. Ayahuasca ingestion did not modify state- or trait-anxiety. The results are discussed in terms of the possible use of ayahuasca in alleviating signs of hopelessness and panic-like related symptoms.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anxiety / drug therapy*
  • Anxiety / psychology
  • Banisteriopsis / chemistry*
  • Beverages
  • Brazil
  • Depressive Disorder / drug therapy*
  • Depressive Disorder / psychology
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Fruit / chemistry
  • Harmaline / administration & dosage
  • Harmaline / chemistry
  • Harmaline / pharmacology
  • Harmine / administration & dosage
  • Harmine / analogs & derivatives
  • Harmine / chemistry
  • Harmine / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Molecular Structure
  • N,N-Dimethyltryptamine / administration & dosage
  • N,N-Dimethyltryptamine / chemistry
  • N,N-Dimethyltryptamine / pharmacology
  • Panic / drug effects*
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plant Leaves / chemistry
  • Psychometrics / methods
  • Religion
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Plant Extracts
  • tetrahydroharmine
  • harmol
  • Harmine
  • Harmaline
  • N,N-Dimethyltryptamine