Investigation of cytokine expression in human leukocyte cultures with two immune-modulatory homeopathic preparations

J Altern Complement Med. 2007 May;13(4):403-7. doi: 10.1089/acm.2007.6292.


Background: The efficacy of homeopathic medicines for maintaining human health and treating disease has been extensively examined in clinical trials. However, there is a paucity of preclinical evaluations of the effects of homeopathic medicinal preparations on cellular signaling pathways relevant to the applications of these preparations.

Materials and methods: In this study, the immune-modulatory effects of Phase 6 (for the stimulation of the nonspecific defense system) and Flu Terminator (for influenza and viral diseases) (Be Well Homeopathics Inc. Miami, FL), two homeopathic preparations developed for the purpose, were evaluated in normal human leukocyte cultures in vitro.

Results: Both Phase 6 and Flu Terminator stimulated the production of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines by human leukocytes, although higher doses often produced a weaker response than lower doses. The carrier solvent (20% ethanol) failed to elicit any cytokine synthesis.

Conclusions: The results of the in vitro studies suggested that ultralow concentrations of ingredients in Phase 6 and Flu Terminator were capable of eliciting a human immune response.

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Cytokines / drug effects*
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Homeopathy*
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Inflammation Mediators / pharmacology*
  • Interleukin-1 / metabolism
  • Interleukin-10 / metabolism
  • Interleukin-4 / metabolism
  • Leukocytes / drug effects*
  • Leukocytes / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism


  • Cytokines
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Interleukin-1
  • Plant Extracts
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Interleukin-10
  • Interleukin-4