This study was investigated clinical factors for aspiration in stroke patients by videofluoroscopy (VF). Subjects were 102 patients with strokes aged between 34 and 101 years including 72 males and 30 females and for whom VF was performed for swallowing difficulty or suspected swallowing difficulty. They consisted of 64 patients with cerebral infarction, 33 patients with cerebral hemorrhage, and 5 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Before VF, pharyngeal reflex, physical status, and cognitive function were evaluated as bedside clinical assessment. As for swallowing evaluation at bedside, the repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST) and water swallowing test were performed. Aspiration was classified into aspiration with choking and silent aspiration (SA) by presence of a cough reflex. As results, aspiration with foodstuffs on VF was found in 59 of 102 (57.8%) patients and SA was found in 44 of them (43.1%). In patients with not only pharyngeal reflex but also cervical and maintaining a position stability, and those who were decreased in cognitive function, aspiration should always be supposed and the observation for eating behavior against aspiration should be needed. We divided patients into three groups; no aspiration, SA and aspiration with choking. Significant difference was observed between the groups in Mini-Mental State Examination, Barthel Index, and RSST. Although in the water-swallowing test, swallowing was possible without choking, SA was observed on VF in most cases. Therefore, in cases with serious disability and cognitive dysfunction with advanced age, RSST and water swallowing test should not be overestimated, it is worth conducting VF when aspiration is suspected from neurological assessment.