Growth related oncogene-alpha (GRO-alpha) is a member of the CXC chemokine family with an internal glutamate-leucine-arginine (ELR) motif. It was initially isolated and characterized by its growth stimulatory activity on malignant melanoma cells. Recently, many new functions and properties of GRO-alpha have been discovered and associated with atherosclerosis, angiogenesis and many inflammatory conditions. Purpose of this review is to overview current advances of multiple functions of GRO-alpha and its associated molecular mechanisms and clinical implications. We hope to further evaluate this molecule in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis as well as angiogenesis to promote a background for therapeutic interventions.