We aimed to correlate pathologic findings with MTM1 mutation type in a series of molecularly defined XLMTM cases. Clinical data from 15 XLMTM patients and their corresponding 16 muscle biopsies were studied. All patients were infants (range: 6-217 days old) when initially biopsied. The proportion of myofibers with central nuclei did not correlate with clinical outcome, however, morphometric studies showed that survivors had larger myofiber diameters in infancy than those who died (10.4+/-3.9microm versus 8.9+/-3microm; p<0.001). As a corollary, patients with MTM1 missense mutations had larger myofiber diameters (11.1+/-4microm), than those with truncation/deletion mutations (8.6+/-2.7microm) (controls 11.7+/-2.5microm) (p<0.0001). These data indicate that differences in myofiber size correlate with MTM1 mutation type and patient outcome. Failure to attain and/or maintain myofiber size, along with fiber type perturbations and the misplacement of myofiber nuclei and other organelles, are important components of XLMTM muscle pathology.