Purpose: To determine the phase II dose and objective response rate of erlotinib, a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in combination with cisplatin in patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC).
Patients and methods: HNSCC patients with no prior chemotherapy and measurable disease were treated in three escalating-dose cohorts of daily continuous oral (PO) erlotinib and intermittent intravenous (IV) cisplatin given every 21 days. The recommended phase II dose (RPTD) was then evaluated in a two-stage trial with a primary end point of objective response rate.
Results: A total of 51 patients were enrolled. The RPTD was identified as erlotinib 100 mg PO daily and cisplatin 75 mg/m2 IV every 21 days. Forty-five patients were treated at the RPTD, of which 44 and 43 were eligible for toxicity and efficacy evaluations, respectively. The intention-to-treat response rate was 21%, with one complete and eight partial responses (95% CI, 10% to 36%), and disease stabilization was achieved in 21 patients (49%; 95% CI, 33% to 65%). Median progression-free survival was 3.3 months (95% CI, 2.7 to 4.8 months) and median overall survival was 7.9 (95% CI, 5.6 to 9.5) months. The combination was well tolerated, with minimal grade 3 or higher toxicity. Subgroup analysis suggested that patients who developed higher grade skin rashes during cycle 1 had better survival outcomes (P = .034).
Conclusion: This schedule of erlotinib and cisplatin has a favorable toxicity profile and has antitumor activity in HNSCC comparable to standard combination chemotherapy regimens.