Biofilm formation is a crucial step in the pathogenesis of many subacute and chronic bacterial infections, including foreign body-related infections. Biofilms are difficult to eradicate with conventional antimicrobial agents. Bacterial biofilms have several potential antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms may act concurrently, and in some cases, synergistically. Persister cells play a major role in the tolerance of biofilm bacteria to antimicrobial agents. Understanding the mechanisms involved in biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance is key to development of new therapeutic strategies.