Vitamin A stability in salt triple fortified with iodine, iron, and vitamin A

Food Nutr Bull. 2006 Sep;27(3):252-9. doi: 10.1177/156482650602700308.


Background: Dietary micronutrient deficiencies, which lead to diseases such as iodine deficiency disorders, iron-deficiency anemia, and vitamin A deficiency, are serious public health problems in the developing world. Fortifying salt with iodine, iron, and vitamin A is an attractive approach to simultaneously reduce the deficiencies of these three micronutrients in the diet.

Objective: To explore the technical feasibility of producing triple-fortified salt fortified with iodine, iron, and vitamin A that would be stable under the climatic conditions of developing countries (i.e., high temperature and high humidity).

Methods: Triple-fortified salt was obtained by granulation and encapsulation of commercially produced vitamin A products, iodine, and iron compounds. Vitamin A retention was determined in the presence of five iron and two iodine compounds, in different combinations, under three different storage conditions. The influence of commercial stabilization techniques for the vitamin A palmitate source used (spray-dried or dissolved in oil), and the type of binder used for granulation on vitamin A retention in triple-fortified salt was studied. The influence of temperature, humidity, and chemical interactions on vitamin A stability in triple-fortified salt was also investigated.

Results: The most stable formulation retained 77.73% of vitamin A after 2 months of storage at 40 degrees C, 60% relative humidity, and 95% under ambient conditions.

Conclusions: The results indicate that the production of a stable triple-fortified salt is technically feasible.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biological Availability
  • Climate*
  • Drug Stability
  • Drug Storage
  • Excipients
  • Food, Fortified / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Iodine / analysis
  • Iodine / chemistry
  • Iron, Dietary / analysis
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary*
  • Temperature
  • Time Factors
  • Vitamin A / chemistry*
  • Vitamin A / therapeutic use
  • Vitamin A Deficiency / drug therapy*


  • Excipients
  • Iron, Dietary
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary
  • iodized salt
  • Vitamin A
  • Iodine