Intranasal vaccines for protection against respiratory and systemic bacterial infections

Expert Rev Vaccines. 2007 Jun;6(3):419-29. doi: 10.1586/14760584.6.3.419.


More than 4 million deaths per year are due to respiratory diseases. Although licensed vaccines are available, bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bordetella pertussis and Neisseria meningiditis, among others, continue to be the major agents of diseases in young children, the elderly and/or immunocompromized individuals. Following respiratory tract infection, some microorganisms may also invade the epithelial tissue, achieving systemic circulation and/or other organs. Nasal administration of different antigen formulations has shown promising results in the induction of immune responses and the defeat of the pathogens at the site of infection. This review will focus on the main nasal vaccine strategies and technologies being investigated against the most common infections caused by respiratory bacteria.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Animals
  • Bacteremia / prevention & control*
  • Bacterial Infections / immunology
  • Bacterial Infections / prevention & control*
  • Bacterial Proteins / immunology
  • Bacterial Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Bacterial Vaccines / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Mucosal
  • Polysaccharides, Bacterial / immunology
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / immunology
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / prevention & control*
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / immunology
  • Vaccines, DNA / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, DNA / immunology


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Bacterial Vaccines
  • Polysaccharides, Bacterial
  • Vaccines, Attenuated
  • Vaccines, DNA