RPK1 and TOAD2 Are Two Receptor-Like Kinases Redundantly Required for Arabidopsis Embryonic Pattern Formation

Dev Cell. 2007 Jun;12(6):943-56. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2007.04.003.


Although the basic plant body plan is established during embryogenesis, the molecular basis of embryonic patterning remains to be fully understood. We have identified two receptor-like kinases, RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE1 (RPK1) and TOADSTOOL2 (TOAD2), required for Arabidopsis embryonic pattern formation. Genetic analysis indicates that RPK1 and TOAD2 have overlapping embryonic functions. The zygotic gene dosage of TOAD2 in an rpk1 background is of critical importance, suggesting that signaling mediated by RPK1 and TOAD2 must be above a threshold level for proper embryo development. The localization of RPK1 and TOAD2 translational fusions to GFP coupled with the analysis of cell-type-specific markers indicate that RPK1 and TOAD2 are redundantly required for both pattern formation along the radial axis and differentiation of the basal pole during early embryogenesis. We propose that RPK1 and TOAD2 receive intercellular signals and mediate intracellular responses that are necessary for embryonic pattern formation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / embryology*
  • Arabidopsis / enzymology*
  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism*
  • Body Patterning*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Protein Biosynthesis
  • Protein Kinases / genetics
  • Protein Kinases / metabolism*
  • RNA, Plant / genetics
  • RNA, Plant / metabolism
  • Seeds / embryology
  • Seeds / enzymology
  • Seeds / genetics


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • RNA, Plant
  • Protein Kinases
  • RPK1 protein, Arabidopsis