Stature (adult height) is one of the most heritable human traits, yet few genes, if any, have been convincingly associated with adult height variation in the general population. Here, we selected 150 tag SNPs from eight candidate genes in the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) axis (GHR, GHRH, GHRHR, IGF1, IGFALS, IGFBP3, JAK2, STAT5B), and genotyped them in approximately 2,200 individuals ascertained for short or tall stature. Nominally significant tag SNPs were then tested in three additional replication cohorts, including a family-based panel to rule out spurious associations owing to population stratification. Across the four height cohorts (N = 6,075 individuals), we did not observe any consistent associations between stature and common variants (> or =5% minor allele frequency) in these eight genes, including a common deletion of the growth hormone receptor gene exon 3. Tests of epistatic interactions between these genes did not yield any results beyond those expected by chance. Although we have not tested all genes in the GH/IGF1 axis, our results indicate that common variation in these GH/IGF1 axis genes is not a major determinant of stature, and suggest that if common variation contributes to adult height variation in the general population, the variants are in other, possibly unanticipated genes.