Recently, we showed that NUB1 is a synphilin-1-interacting protein and that NUB1, as well as synphilin-1, accumulates in Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and glial cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy (MSA). In this study, an investigation was further conducted to elucidate the immunohistochemical localization of NUB1 in various neurodegenerative disorders. In controls, anti-NUB1 antibody weakly immunolabeled neuronal perikarya. In PD and DLB, cortical and brainstem-type Lewy bodies, pale bodies and Lewy neurites were strongly immunolabeled with anti-NUB1. In MSA, NUB1 immunoreactivity was found in the intracytoplasmic inclusions of both neuronal and oligodendroglial cells, neuronal nuclear inclusions, and swollen neurites. No NUB1 immunoreactivity was found in a variety of other neuronal or glial inclusions in other disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Pick's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, motor neuron disease and triplet-repeat diseases. These findings indicate that the abnormal accumulation of NUB1 is specific for alpha-synucleinopathy lesions. However, yeast two-hybrid assay demonstrated that NUB1 did not directly interact with alpha-synuclein.