Gallium nitrate is a heavy metal anticancer agent that has demonstrated widespread activity in a number of phase I studies. This phase II study employed a starting dose of 700 mg/m2 IV every two weeks in patients with advanced bladder carcinoma. Significant nephrotoxicity observed in 4 of the first 10 patients required extending the time between cycles to three weeks in the remaining 24 patients. One complete response and six partial responses were achieved. Nephrotoxicity was the major dose-limiting toxicity. Gastrointestinal toxicity and myelosuppression were minimal. Gallium nitrate appears to be an active agent in advanced carcinoma of the bladder. Further clinical trials with this agent are warranted.