Global distribution of Panton-Valentine leukocidin--positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 2006

Emerg Infect Dis. 2007 Apr;13(4):594-600. doi: 10.3201/eid1304.061316.


We determined the agr type, multilocus sequence type, protein A gene type (spa typing), toxin gene profile, and antimicrobial drug resistance profile of 469 isolates of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates (PVL-positive CA-MRSA). The isolates had been collected from around the world from 1999 through 2005 by the French National Reference Center for Staphylococci. We found that some continent-specific clones described in 2003, such as clone ST8, have now spread all over the world. Likewise, some PVL-positive CA-MRSA have spread to several countries on various continents. New clones have emerged (e.g., ST377) on new genetic backgrounds. PVL-positive CA-MRSA that were usually susceptible to most antistaphylococcal antimicrobial agents have acquired new resistance determinants (e.g., to gentamicin) in certain countries. The major trait shared by all these clones is a short staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec element of type IV or V.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Toxins / genetics
  • Bacterial Toxins / metabolism*
  • Community-Acquired Infections / epidemiology*
  • Community-Acquired Infections / microbiology
  • DNA, Bacterial / analysis
  • Exotoxins / genetics
  • Exotoxins / metabolism*
  • Global Health*
  • Humans
  • Leukocidins / genetics
  • Leukocidins / metabolism*
  • Methicillin Resistance* / genetics
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Staphylococcal Infections / epidemiology*
  • Staphylococcal Infections / microbiology
  • Staphylococcus aureus / classification*
  • Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects
  • Staphylococcus aureus / genetics
  • Staphylococcus aureus / metabolism
  • Trans-Activators / genetics


  • Agr protein, Staphylococcus aureus
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Bacterial Toxins
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • Exotoxins
  • Leukocidins
  • Panton-Valentine leukocidin
  • Trans-Activators