Since the first peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients with encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) were reported in 1980, EPS has been considered primarily a fatal complication. The incidence of EPS in PD patients has been reported to be 2.5%, with a negative effect of increasing PD duration (which also augments mortality). Because EPS occurs after withdrawal from PD in more than half of all cases, strict monitoring is necessary when a long-term PD patient is withdrawn from PD. Maintaining patients on standard PD with conventional solutions for more than 8 years is associated with a substantial risk of EPS development. Treatment appropriate to the disease stage is most important in EPS. Basic therapeutic strategies for EPS include the appropriate use of steroids. If bowel obstruction persists, laparotomy and enterolysis should be performed to achieve a complete cure. It is now recognized that EPS need not be a fatal complication of PD.