Mini Mental State Examination and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination: Effect of Education and Norms for a Multicultural Population

Neurol India. Apr-Jun 2007;55(2):106-10. doi: 10.4103/0028-3886.32779.

Abstract

Objective: To derive population norms on the Malayalam adaptation of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (M-ACE) and the inclusive Malayalam mini mental state examination (M-MMSE).

Materials and methods: Education-stratified norms were obtained on randomly selected cognitively unimpaired community elders (n = 519).

Results: Valid data on norms was available on 488 subjects (age 68.5 +/- 7.1 and education 7.9 +/- 5.4). Education and age, but not gender had a significant effect on both M-ACE and M-MMSE. When compared to the effect of age, the effect of education was sevenfold more on the M-ACE and ninefold more on the M-MMSE. The mean composite score on the M-ACE (and the M-MMSE) was 42.8 +/- 9.8 (14.9 +/- 3.1) for those with 0 (n = 72), 55.9 +/- 12.5 (19.7 +/- 4.1) with 1-4 (n = 96), 62.6 +/- 11.4 (21.9 +/- 3.7) with 5-8 (n = 81), 77 +/- 10.2 (25.7 +/- 2.4) with 9-12 (n = 136) and 83.4 +/- 7.2 (26.7 +/- 1.6) with > 12 (n = 103) years of formal education.

Conclusions: Education has the most potent effect on performance on both M-ACE and M-MMSE in the Indian cohort. Education-stratified scores on the M-ACE and the M-MMSE, will provide a more appropriate means of establishing the cognitive status of patients. It is also our feeling that these cut-off scores will be useful across India.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cognition / physiology*
  • Cognition Disorders / diagnosis
  • Cognition Disorders / epidemiology
  • Cognition Disorders / psychology
  • Culture*
  • Education*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropsychological Tests / standards*
  • Population
  • Reference Standards
  • Sex Factors