Islet autoantibody development during follow-up of high-risk children from the general Norwegian population from three months of age: design and early results from the MIDIA study

J Autoimmun. 2007 Aug;29(1):44-51. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2007.04.003. Epub 2007 Jun 7.


We describe the design of the MIDIA study and present serial islet autoantibody data from 3 months of age in the 526 first enrolled children from the general population carrying the type 1 diabetes high-risk HLA-DRB1*0401-DQA1*03-DQB1*0302/DRB1*0301-DQA1*05-DQB1*02 genotype. Blood samples were obtained from children at ages 3, 6, 9 and 12 months and annually thereafter to a median age of 12 months. Autoantibodies to insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase and insulinoma-associated antigen-2 were measured with radiobinding assays. About 25,000 general population newborns were genotyped, and among 526 children with the high-risk HLA genotype, 2104 samples were assayed. Fourteen children were positive in at least two consecutive samples, including 12 who were positive for > or =2 autoantibodies at least once, of which five developed type 1 diabetes at median age 15.3 months. Seven of 14 persistently positive children seroconverted before 9 months, including two before 6 months of age. The estimated cumulative probability of multiple autoantibody positivity at 5 years was 7.3% (95% confidence interval: 3.5-12.4%). Thus, persistent islet autoimmunity is not uncommon in the first year of life in children from the general population carrying the high-risk HLA genotype, and may develop as early as at 6 months of age.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Autoantibodies / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • HLA-D Antigens / genetics
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Islets of Langerhans / immunology*
  • Male
  • Norway
  • Risk


  • Autoantibodies
  • HLA-D Antigens